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  • Read and write proper documentation for the projects and languages you’re working on.
  • Examine the code of other developers’ and explore new ideas.
  • Make mistakes–often. It strengthens your ability to be a developer by challenging you to find, test, and anticipate errors.

Overview of the Internet

  • Information Structure: How to best organize a website for the user.
  • HTML and Document Object Model –> Accessing Elements with CSS and JS
  • CSS for design/user experience, interactivity
    • Setting rules for the webpage.
    • CSS Zen Garden
    • There are several different ways to organize your CSS, including OOCSS (Object-oriented), SMACSS (Scalable and Modular Architecture), BEM (Block, Element, Modifier.)
  • Design has to be responsive (web, mobile, tablet, etc.)
  • JavaScript manages interaction within a browser.
    • Interacts the DOM to handle events.
    • A transpilier is often needed to have cross-browser compatibility.
  • The protocol HTTP(S) for connection.
    • GET : Asks to receive information
    • POST : Sends information
    • DELETE : Deletes information
    • HTTP/2 has multiplexing.

Elements of Web Development

  • TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/ Internet Protocol) is responsible for largely how the Internet functions today.
    • Breaks information down into packets (TCP) and get past into the best available paths at the moment.
    • IP is the address that the packets get sent too.
    • A DNS (Domain Name Server) converts URLs into these IP locations.
    • The URL (Uniform Resource Identifier/Locater) is the entire name of a website that is an easily-readable address that the user types in.
  • Orient your projects to be accessible. Making something easier for a certain group of users makes things easier for every user.
    • Use ARIA to help write your HTML in accessible ways.
    • Use Google’s Lighthouse tool to get an overview of your entire site.
  • The methodology called Mobile-First teaches that you should always seek to simplify what is being displayed, especially on smaller devices.
  • Beyond the three primary languages of web design (HTML, CSS, and JS), there are a multitude of languages built on top of these that have marked improvements.
    • Eg. SASS is a language that allows logic to be transpiled to CSS
  • JavaScript was originally designed to be functional, not object-oriented, but has evolved to be a hybrid of both.
  • MVC (Model-View-Controller) is a popular design concept for treating the data or model as a separate entity, then creating a template which is called the view which uses that data, and finally writing code called the controller that combines the model and the view.
  • Another way of organizing code is a component-based architecture.
    • This means separating functionality into self-contained pieces, so flexible and reusable parts can be shared between applications
  • Built tests for your applications to constantly check for problems in all parts of your development process.

Version Control

  • Agile is the philosophy of regrouping regularly to be sure your software can rapidly adjust in order to meet the customer’s needs.
  • DevOps is the combination of software development and IT operations, with the goal being to shorten the time between writing the code and deployment.
  • In addition to continuous delivery, up-to-date and well written documentation is vital to allow others (and you in the future) to understand and build upon your existing work.
  • Git allows people to work on their own versions of a project and then merge these different versions later.

Server Technologies

  • Most servers have transitioned from physical devices of hardware to cloud-based virtual machines that are usually run by large companies such as Microsoft Azure, Amazon Web Services, or Google Cloud Platform.
  • These cloud-based virtual machines are considered elastic in nature, meaning their specifications can grow based on how much demand your application or website needs from them.
  • You can place data closer to your users by using a CDN (Content delivery network) which creates copies of a server’s information on physically closer machines.

  • SQL (structured query language) is often used as back-end language for storing and organizing data that will be retrieved by the front-end.
  • NoSQL are languages that do not implement the traditional and rigid structure that SQL languages have, and can be faster due to the lack of overhead.

Tools and Frameworks

  • IDE (integrated development environment) is a program that helps you write, debug, and document code as well as compile and run it.
  • Webpack is an open-source JavaScript module bundler. It is a module bundler primarily for JavaScript, but it can transform front-end assets as well.
  • Babel is a free and open-source JavaScript transcompiler that is mainly used to convert ECMAScript 2015+ code into a backwards compatible version of JavaScript that can be run by older JavaScript engines.
  • There are many HTML/CSS frameworks, with Bootstrap being the most popular and oldest, with other popular ones including Material Design, Foundation.

JavaScript Frameworks

  • D3.js is a JavaScript library for producing dynamic, interactive data visualizations in web browsers. It makes use of the widely implemented Scalable Vector Graphics, HTML5, and Cascading Style Sheets standards
  • jQuery is a JavaScript library designed to simplify HTML DOM tree traversal and manipulation, as well as event handling, CSS animation, and Ajax.
  • Angular is a TypeScript-based open-source web application framework led by the Angular Team at Google and by a community of individuals and corporations.
  • React is a JavaScript library for building user interfaces. It is maintained by Facebook and a community of individual developers and companies.
  • Vue.js is an open-source Model–view–controller JavaScript framework for building user interfaces and single-page applications.

Application Connections

  • A programmer often doesn’t build an entire program, but rather a service that is utilized by another program in order to simplify the sharing of data.
  • An application programming interface is an interface or communication protocol between different parts of a computer program intended to simplify the implementation and maintenance of software.
    • An API may be for a web-based system, operating system, database system, computer hardware, or software library.
  • Representational state transfer is a software architectural style that defines a set of constraints to be used for creating Web services.
    • Web services that conform to the REST architectural style, called RESTful Web services, provide interoperability between computer systems on the Internet.
    • These requests use the HTML language of GET and POST, and are usually returned in the JSON format.
  • There are services such as OAuth which validate applications in order to make sure they are secure by acting as an intermediary between the service and the program.

Internet Website Process

  • Type a URL into the address bar, hit return, what happens?
  • points at a specific resource somewhere on the web
    • That somewhere is a server that is mapped to that specific IP
    • Browser sends a GET request to the server
    • DNS figures out which domain the domain is pointing at
    • Retrieves all the data and presents it in the browser’s viewport.
    • You can then start interacting the data and elements
    • Carefully-structured elements are in containers with a visual structure that’s created with CSS. Everything is a box within a box.
    • The browser is JUST an advanced viewer of web documents
  • Any time a browser is asked to display an HTML document, it creates a document object model or DOM, which is a structural representation of the elements in the document and their relationships.
    • This document object model can be visualized as a DOM tree, where each element is a leaf or node, and the connections are branches. When you add new elements to an HTML document, you are effectively adding a node to this DOM tree.
    • When you target elements using CSS or JavaScript, you ask the browser to follow the branches all the way from the root to the node or nodes in question.
    • This is called either walking or traversing or navigating the DOM.
    • When creating a website, it can be helpful to draw out the DOM tree to understand relationships and inheritances between different elements.
    • This also encourages the reduction of complexity and avoid unnecessary nesting by prioritizing accessibility and logical structure.
  • HTML was created to allow humans to write highly-structured documents which could be interpreted consistently and universally by any rendering engine supporting the language.
    • HTML is a declarative markup language, meaning it describes the contents of a document.
    • However, HTML does not provide instructions about the control flow or processing or interactions with that content.
    • This allows the reader, commonly known as a client, so a web browser or some other application, to decide how to handle the different types of content which makes HTML incredibly versatile and accessible.
    • The DOM tree is the browser representation of every HTML element and their relationships with other elements.
  • Web documents is a document with superpowers, by marking up a document in HTML, it can be viewed by anybody and anywhere they want. It is not proprietary or tied to any specific visuals.
    • Accessible. Shareable. Linkable.
    • This superpower is held by anybody with a web browser!
  • When writing for the Internet, you are writing for two audience: Humans and Technology.
    • In order for technology (the web browser) to understand our documents, we must be explicit with the nature, properties, purpose, and relationships of the content within the data.
  • Every part of the example document below is marked up with a tag describing its function, headings, paragraphs, emphasized and strongly emphasized texts, block quotes and citation, addresses, ordered and unordered lists, links, buttons, the list goes on.
    • For each of these elements, the browser generates a corresponding node and places it on the node tree of the document object model.
    • Once that tree is populated, a user can instruct the client to fetch any of these elements either through direct interaction or through code.
<!-- HTML Content and Structure Example -->

<html lang="en-US">
  <head> </head>

    <!-- This section is required for accessibility.
             Will automatically skip to the main content of the document. -->
    <a class="skip-link screen-reader-text" href="#content">Skip to content.</a>

    <header class="masthead clear"></header>

    <div id="showcase" class="promo-area"></div>

    <main id="content" class="main-area">
      <article class="post-content"></article>

    <footer class="footer"></footer>
  • Web Meta-data is non-visual data added to a web document to provide further information about purpose and function.
    • This includes schema, micro-format, ARIA and other tools.
  • Accessibility is one of the most important aspects of a web page document, and should take precedent over aesthetic and interactivity.
    • Regardless what tool a user uses, content should be accessible.
    • Always start with semantic, compliant HTML.
    • Run accessibility checks as you add more visual elements.
    • Audit and maintain the accessibility of your website over time.
  • Test your websites in as many different versions of browsers and different browsers to make sure it works on all of them.
    • In addition to the desktop browser, there is the mobile browser, in-app browser, text-only browsers, text-to-speech browsers, console browsers, smart TV browsers, fridge browsers, et cetera.
  • The browser of today will not display the Internet of tomorrow.
    • Accessibility, progressive features, and universal standards allow for the future-proofing of websites.
    • The utility of RESTful APIs allow information to be independent from the viewport which allows it to be easily viewed in a multitude of ways.
  • The ability to have our websites work in older browsers should be utilized with CSS and JavaScript as one way to display it.
  • At it’s core, the web runs on three main programming and markup languages. HTML for content, CSS for style and JavaScript for interactivity.
  • Events are actions or occurrences that happen in the system you are programming, which the system tells you about so you can respond to them in some way, if desired.
    • Event Handling is detecting and responding to an event using JavaScript.
      • Identify a DOM node to monitor
      • Identify the event you want to respond to
      • Create a function to run when the event is triggered.
  • To properly test a website in a browser, you need to run a local live server, and most IDEs have a simple live-server plug-in to do this.
    • BrowserSync also allows cross-browser testing as well.